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Ken Bell

4th Annual Shrewsbury Maple Syrup Festival

Ken Bell : March 13, 2016 12:42 pm :

4th Annual, Shrewsbury Maple Syrup Festival
Saturday, March 19th, 8 am till noon
Pancakes Sausage $8 Adult, $4 kids 7 and under
FREE Bush and Barn tours
Cotton Candy, Candy Apples, T-s and more
Great for the kids!!!

Agro-Forestry at its best!

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Ken Bell

Citizen-Based Water Quality Monitoring Program

Ken Bell : October 3, 2015 2:26 pm :

This page will change as data is collected and a PDF link will be published. Additional relevant information will be posted from time to time. Updates will be shared via the “Great Lakes Community Eco Initiative” facebook page.

To Contribute:

https://www.gofundme.com/9944pavs

https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/water-quality-monitoring-ontario/x/12160525#/

Water is life. Fresh water is the lifeblood of Ontario and Canada. The Great lakes and the vast majority of rivers and streams that feed them were once all drinkable and home to complex, varied and stable ecosystems for many thousands of years of human settlement after the last ice age. Over the past 150 years there has been a dramatic and devastating loss of  biological diversity and degrading of water quality. By comparison, this cannot be understated.

Although solutions to water pollution are technically simple and economically feasible, clean water is a political “hot potato”. Few if any are willing to accept responsibility and fewer still implement long term, research based solutions. Here, in Southwestern Ontario problems are magnified due to the low topography, rich soils, lack of forest cover, intensive urban and agricultural development and lack of effective regulation of nutrient outflows.

Added to this mix are the cuts to core regulatory funding that included extensive source water testing. The regulatory system we have now does not seek to prevent pollution, but only mitigate point and non point sources after runoffs have occurred. Without monitoring, most persistent nutrient outflows go unchecked and unnoticed until secondary effects like cyanobacteria blooms turn our once drinkable waters, toxic green.

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microcystis, 200x (source Rondeau Bay)

Most have read, heard or have seen the effects of excessive nutrient pollution. This leads to lakes and bays experiencing eutrophication, which is essentially a shutting down of the ecology due to lack of dissolved oxygen.  Both Canada and the U.S. recognize the massive scale of this problem and have cosigned the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement http://www2.epa.gov/glwqa

There are some huge nutrient sources like the Maumee River and Thames River that hold bi-national significance. Rondeau Bay and the surrounding subwatershed also have serious pollution problems, but aren’t an international priority.

priority_watersheds_map_final

Rondeau Bay, center green circle.

This short video from Sept 2015 shows a very green Rondeau Bay

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyINBXHpVEc

RondeauBaySpaceMicrocystisSept27

microcystis September 27 2015

The next step is to regularly test streams and rivers within the Rondeau Watershed around Chatham Kent for nutrients.

Data will be shared and available to everyone, regardless of politics.

The image below shows the present extent of the Ontario stream monitoring network ‌.

PWQMN sites
Monitoring in the lower Southwest is sparse. Zooming into Chatham Kent (lower left)

CK_StreamsThames River Outflows March 2013
The image shows over 4000km of streams in Chatham Kent. Many are sources of nutrient pollution(nitrogen and phosphorus) along the Thames and Sydenham Rivers, Lake St Clair, Rondeau Bay and Lake Erie.

Chatham Kent is like a giant kidney, filtering into the lifeblood of our planet, Water.

This once great ecological infrastructure is being slowly dismantled.
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Over 96% of the once great forests have been cleared for export driven agriculture.
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Marshes and estuaries have been hardened with broken concrete waste.

 

Agricultural “Best Management Practices” are only occasionally applied.
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(compost dump leaching into Rondeau Bay)

Expensive remediation projects often remain untested and uncertified.
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For those living in cities, water quality has a real value.
MapFlier

 

 

“The public needs to know that there is a measurable return on public investment.”

That’s what publishing the results of water sampling and analysis does. Using the ethos of honesty, transparency, open questioning, reliance on evidence and peer review a well informed public can drive public policy.

So let’s start with some comparisons.

This is what a stream should look like. The water is clear with some tannins with lots of fish, amphibians, invertebrates and a variety of emergent plants.

Aug15Rondeau 023
(Willow Creek)
Here’s another healthy stream in Chatham Kent, Clear Creek shaded and filtered by the forest.
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Some streams have higher levels of Phosphorus and Nitrogen from agricultural and urban runoff…

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(Morpeth Drain, spring)

 

Many agricultural areas have achieved a balance. Some algae, some invasives, but generally healthy.

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(Tributary of the Snye )

 

…while others have much higher nutrient levels.

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(3rd Concession Drain , summer)

 

Over time, the runoff of these nutrients can pollute Lake Erie and Lake St Clair, producing huge toxic algae blooms.
FB_IMG_1442314550807ClearvilleAlgalBloom

When the algae dies during the late fall it sinks to the bottom and decays. This uses up all of the oxygen, below the “thermocline”, a layer of cold water at the bottom of the lake. This decay can also produce toxic hydrogen sulfide.

The following years, when the surface waters cool in early autumn, the oxygen depleted, toxic water below the thermocline is displaced by the sinking cool surface waters.
An entire near-shore ecosystem can collapse as this 2012 photo taken in south Chatham-Kent shows.
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Below you can see the 2012 progression of the swirl of black oxygen depleted, toxic water that killed nearshore fish over a 50 km stretch of the Lake Erie shoreline.
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Many vertebrate species are affected by water quality. Some are very sensitive.

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Bald Eagles fish and nest along the Erie Shore and Thames and Sydenham Rivers.

redbrestedmerganzers

Red Brested Merganzers bioaccumulate aquatic toxins.

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The same with Great Egrets,…

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Kingfishers,…

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Wood Ducks…

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Chorus Frogs…

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and Mink.

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And Us!

We can only know the health of specific locations by sampling, testing and analysis .

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This is where Volunteers come in!
In partnership with the University of Guelph, the Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority and the Rondeau Watershed Coalition we began in 2005, a 5 year sampling and testing program throughout the Rondeau Watershed.

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sampling in Rondeau Bay

This included Field Courses in Rapid Bioassessment Protocols.
By counting the numbers and types of aquatic invertebrates a streams health and levels of pollutants can be accurately assessed.

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An integral part of the program is sampling and analysis.

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This 5 year program helped to establish a baseline for nutrients and metals within the Rondeau Watershed and Clear Creek.

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Now it’s time to move into a more comprehensive Citizen Science based program that produces published evidence based assessments of local streams and rivers.

With this, we would like to ask for your help.

Citizen Based
Water Quality Monitoring

The Great Lakes Community Eco Initiative, in partnership with St Clair college Chemical Lab Tech Dept. and University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus, will conduct a stream sampling and testing program focusing on nutrient outflows into Lake Erie and Lake St Clair.

Sampling would be on a student volunteer/internship basis and would correspond to runoff events and wet seasons as well as a regularly timed series.

The scope of 1st year sampling will be the Rondeau Watershed, the Chatham-Kent, Erie Shoreline and the Thames River upstream and downstream from Chatham, for the purpose of identifying point and non-point nutrient sources in excess of background levels.

Both surface and benthic samples will be taken.

Where possible Level 2-3 Rapid Bioassessment Protocol (RBP-2) will be used in the field. RBP-3 will be used for training and expanding knowledge of species level tolerances of pollutants.

Field tests will include Temp, pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, DO as well as a site assessment that include photos, coordinates, weather conditions and impressions (anything unusual).

The focus of testing will be to measure Nitrogen (TKN), Total Phosphorus and toxic metals (Hg, Pb, Zn, Cu) as well as fecal coliforms and BODs from benthic samples.

The scope of analysis will be to identify specific point sources geophysically, chemically and biologically as well as the general health of water courses from RBP-2 results.

The data will be made publicly available in a quarterly report, published online.
http://greatlakescei.ca

Project partners will be; Great Lakes Community Eco Initiative University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus St Clair College

The project will work with the Ministry of the Environment & Climate Change, the Municipality of Chatham-Kent and the Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority.

Funding will be through private contributions, partnership grants and other sources and will include:

Lab fees 10 samples, taken quarterly (sample bottles included). 40 total

TP/TKNColourimetric 35.00
MercuryCVAA 25.00
2-5 Elements ICP 45.00
Total per sample $105.00
Total per year 40x $105.00
4200+$630hst= $4830.00

Equipment:

1) Hach sensION+ MM156 Portable Multi Meter Kit for pH, ORP and Dissolved Oxygen (or equivalent)
$1489.00 USD +S/H

Smartphone(s) with GPS(1 donated) or Digital camera + Handheld GPS (in kind $300.00)

2) Waterproof binders for paper field sheets (donated)
(in kind $40.00)

1)20x Binocular inspection microscope for RBP3 (donated) (in kind $200.00-$400.00)

2)1m^2, 500 micron kicknets $200.00 USD+S/H
http://www.forestry-suppliers.com/product_pages/Products.asp?mi=36611

100) 4″ plastic Petri dishes for RBP2(donated) (inkind$100.00)
4 tweezers

1) Laptop with current version of MS Excel (able to run macros)
(donated) (in kind $300.00)

1) Ekman dredge (AMS Shallow Water Bottom Dredge) or equivalent
$455.00 USD + s/h
1) Secchi disk(donated)($50.00)

3) Pairs hip waiders $250.00+tx
3) Pairs insulated rubber gloves $60.00+tx

Basic office supplies: Paper, printer cartridges, markers, pens, rulers etc ($200.00/Yr)

Coordinator pay:
Year to year based on funding
$5000.00 cdn/year
Sampling, Analysis, publication
Volunteer Coordination, Outreach and funding.
Mileage
Sundry expenses.

In-kind (donated):
Smartphone $300.00
Binders $40.00
Laptop $300.00
Secchi disk $50.00
Microscopes $300.00
Petri dishes $100.00
Total in kind $1090.00
___________________________
___________________________

Total project yearly goods and services
$4830.00 testing
$200.00 office
$150.00 sundry
$100.00 mileage
Total $5280.00

Project startup hardware:
Hach mm156 $2000.00 cdn

RBP-2 equipment startup
Kick nets ~$300.00cdn
Ekman dredge ~$500.00cdn
Waiders&gloves~$310.0cdn
Total $1110.00

Total 1st year startup cost:
$8390.00
Total 1st year coordinator:
$5000.00
Total project 1st year costs:
$13,390.00

As funding comes in we will add additional test sites in the region.

We need your help!
Help us to provide a valuable service to environmental charities and not for profit groups.

Help us to provide third party oversight to environmental projects and to give people and governments the qualified information they need to act!

Help us make the world more aware of the importance of fresh water health.

Please donate today!

 

Ken Bell

Is CCD a Murder Mystery?

Ken Bell : March 7, 2015 12:07 pm :

ColumboSickBee

 

Remember Columbo, the cigar chomping, rain slickered, squinty detective who seemed to bumble his way through the evidence, randomly alighting on this fact or that. A little socially awkward, and even dismissable with just the wave of a hand. A modest, working class guy. Then, at the end of the episode after sharing pleasant, but tense, conversation with yet another smug, sophisticated type, a rain slickered Columbo, disheveled, slightly hunched, back turned, and about to leave pauses, then turns, left finger raised, right hand over his brow, “Just… just, one thing bothering me….”. Well, you can guess the rest.

Looking at the research surrounding CCD for the past few years, many have come to the conclusion that systemic pesticides constitute a “last straw” of stressors which lead to colony collapse. Looking at the available data, particularly the coincidence of pathogens like Nosema, parasites like Varroa mites and the rise of neonicotinoid use, there is a correlation, (but not necessarily causation) in the increase in CCD over the past few years.

The public polarization of this issue is, unfortunately, an artifact of the difficulties of science reporting. The complexities of ecology, genetics, immunology, experimental design and history are difficult to fold into articles, written for a public looking for a “smoking gun” or villain.

CCD in various guises has been around for some time, over 100 years, but only recently has become a global epidemic. What numerous studies show is that there is more than one culprit and that the synergies between what we do to the bees, and, what we do to their environment are the major drivers of CCD. While the proximate cause of colony collapse my be immune suppression the ultimate cause is distributed among many agents.

It’s to be expected that some vested interests will seek to absolve themselves from their contributions and it’s prudent to remain skeptical when reviewing experimental design and always ask, “What does this experiment tell us, and what doesn’t it?”

To this end, the possibilities of synergies between colonies with parasites or Nosema, and clothianidin tainted pollen were excluded from a recent University of Guelph honeybee study:
“A large-scale field study examining the effects of exposure to clothianidin seed-treated canola on honey bee colony health, development, and overwintering success”
10.7717/peerj.652 G Christopher Cutler Cynthia D. Scott-Dupree et al. Accepted: October 14, 2014

Funded by Bayer CropScience, who also helped set up the experimental design.

Page 8.
Colony Preparation and Management
“Colonies also were assessed for the presence of varroa mite, tracheal mite, American foulbrood, European foulbrood, Nosema, and chalkbrood. Before placement in canola fields hives infected with diseases as determined during the initial hive assessments were not used in the study…”

What this experimental setup does, is remove a significant CCD susceptible population from the sample, thus eliminating the measurement of synergies or multiple causes. Rather than moving research ahead, towards real world solutions, experimental designs like these actually stall efforts and promote the “More Study Needed” diversion tactic, so favored by vested interests.
There is, of course, lots of blame to go around and we need to get beyond the “blame-game” and move towards real, solutions.

The findings from a 2013 graduate paper by Angela Carcione, from the University of Delaware, may prove useful when balancing discussions.

GENETIC ANALYSIS AND MITOTYPE DETERMINATION OF A SURVIVOR POPULATION OF HONEY BEES (APIS MELLIFERA) IN NEW YORK
by Angela Carcione University of Delaware

“My study examines the genetic structure of non-managed “survivor stock” bee colonies in the Arnot Forest, located in Ithaca, NY, and compares it to bees found in two surrounding apiaries. Nuclear DNA allele frequency comparisons found genetic differentiation (3 distinct clusters) between the feral bees and bees from the two managed apiaries. I found that :
1) the Arnot tree bees are feral as opposed to escaped managed bees filling old nest cavities,
2) these feral bees are persisting in the wild despite treatment for agents such as Varroa and other human manipulations, and;
3) there are barriers to gene flow between feral and managed populations.

I uncovered two mtDNA haplotypes among my samples―Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera ligustica, both subspecies of the western European honey bee.

Based on these findings, I suggest more sustainable management practices of our managed honey bee populations in the hopes that they too well develop a more stable coexistence with the agents causing their decline. Strategies include reducing hive size, discontinuing the selection for low-swarming bees, slowing or discontinuing the use of mite-control treatments, spacing hives further apart, and decreasing transportation induced stress of bees. I believe that by working to ensure bees can foster a balanced relationship with their disease agents, the population decimations across the globe can be reduced.”

The study concludes on Page 33:

“It is our belief that current apiculture  practices are a driving force behind Colony Collapse Disorder, and basic management strategies may help to prevent these losses.
Strategies include:

  • discontinuing the selection for low-swarming bees,
  • slowing or discontinuing the use of mite-control treatments as to allow natural selection to favor the more disease-resistance bees,
  • spacing hives further apart,
  • keeping hives that are smaller in size to encourage healthy levels of swarming (even though honey production might be smaller), 
  • decreasing transportation of colonies which not only puts physiological stress on the bees but also hinders natural selection in closed populations.”

—————–

So, healthy, diverse populations that live in uncrowded conditions can deal with environmental stressors and disease better that their domesticated cousins.

Given our taste for cheap honey and unlimited crop yields, I wonder if Lt. Columbo would let anyone leave the room?

Ken Bell

 

 

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